1. King Hui of Liang State asked Wei Liao Zi:”Is it true that the Yellow Emperor, through punishment and virtue, one can achieve a hundred victory without defeat?” Wei Liao Zi replied:”Punishment was employed to attack the rebellious and virtue was employed to stabilise peace. This is not what is referred to as ‘ Heavenly Positions ‘, auspicious time, yin & yang, comet appearance. The Yellow Emperor’s victories were a matter of human effort, that is all. Why do we say that? Now if there is a fortified city and one attacks it from the east and west but cannot take it, and attacks from the south and north but cannot take it, can it be that all four directions fail to accord with the auspicious momentum? If you still cannot take it, it is because the walls are high, the moats deep, the weapons and implements fully prepared, the materials and grains accumulated in great quantities, and their soldiers are unified. If the wall is low, the moats shallow, and the defenses weak then it can be taken. From this perspective, ‘moments’, ’seasons’ and ‘ Heavenly Office ‘ are not as important as human effort.” 2. “According to Heavenly Positions, deploying troops with water to the rear is termed as ‘isolated terrain’. Deploying troops facing a long ridge is termed as ‘abandoning the army’. When King Wu attacked King Zhou of Shang, he deployed troops with rear facing the Ji River and facing the ridge. With twenty two thousand five hundred troops, King Wu managed to defeat King Zhou’s army of hundreds of thousands, and destroyed the Shang Dynasty. King Wu did not accord withHeavenly Positions.” “Chu’s general Gong Zi Xin was about to engage the State of Qi when the comet appears with its tail pointing to the State of Qi. People believed that State of Qi would be victorious, would never be defeated so they refuse to attack the State of Qi. Gong Zi Xin said:’What does a comet know? To fight someone with a broom, of course we use the handle to fight to achieve victory.’ The next day, Gong Zi Xin engaged Qi and achieved resounding victory. The Yellow Emperor said:’Putting spirits and ghost first is not as good as first investigating own’s knowledge.’ This means that the Heavenly Positions are nothing compared to human effort.” 2.1 Measures the fertility and barrenness of the earth, to decide where to build cities. Construct the city walls, in accord with the terrain. Size of the cities should be in accord with the size of the population. Size of the population should be in accord with the amount of grain available. When all three have been mutually determined, then internally, one can be solid in defense. And externally, one can be victorious in battle. Being victorious in battle externally is because one is well-prepared internally. Victory and preparations are mutually employed, like the halves of a tally exactly matching each other. 2.2. Deployment of the army should be as secretive as the depths of Earth, as obscure as the heights of Heaven, with a weak front but underneath lies great power. When the power is unleashed, one does not feel inadequate when the army is used vastly or one does not feel vast when the army is used in a small manner. One who is enlightened about prohibitions, pardons, education and prevention will attract and settled displaced people and bring more lands under cultivation. When the land is broad and under cultivation, the state will be wealthy; when the people are numerous and well-ordered, the state will be governed. When the state is wealthy and well governed, although the people do not remove the blocks from the chariots nor expose their armor, their awesomeness instills order everywhere. Thus it is said ‘the army’s victory stems from the political measures taken. When one is victorious without exposing his armor, it is the ruler’s victory; when victory comes after deploying the army, it is the general’s victory. 2.3. The army cannot be mobilized out of personal anger. If victory can be foreseen, then the troops can be raised. If victory cannot be foreseen, then the mobilization should be stopped. If trouble arises within a hundred li, do not make preparation for a war that last a single day. If trouble arises within a thousand li, do not make preparation for a war that last a single month. If the trouble lies within the country, do not make preparation for a war that last a single year. 2.4. As for the commanding general, above he is not governed by Heaven, below he is not controlled by Earth, in the middle he is not governed by men. He should be composed so that he cannot be stimulated to anger. He should be pure so that he cannot be enticed by wealth. Now if the mind is deranged by emotions, the eyes are blind, and the ears are deaf, to lead men with these three perversities is difficult! 2.5. Wherever a well-trained army ventures, whether it is along byways that wind about like sheep’s intestines, along roads as bumpy as a saw’s teeth, curling about the mountains, or entering a valley, it will be victorious. Whether deployed in a square formation or deployed in a round formation, it will be victorious. A sturdy army is like the mountains, like the forests, like the rivers and great streams. A light force is like a roaring fire; like the earthen walls it presses upon them, like clouds it covers them. They cause the enemy’s troops to be unable to disperse and those that are dispersed to be unable to reassemble. Those on the left are unable to rescue those on the right, those on the right are unable to rescue those on the left. The soldiers should stand like trees, the effects of the crossbows should attack like the goat using its horn. Every man, without exception, morale is high and displays his courage. Casting off all doubts, fervently and determined, they go forth decisively. 3.1. As for the military, regulations must first be established. When regulations are established first, the soldiers will not be disordered. When the soldiers are not disordered, discipline will be well maintained. If wherever the gongs and drums direct them, a hundred men all contend; when moving forward, penetrating the enemy’s ranks and cause chaos among his formations, a thousand men all strive; and to overturn the enemy’s army and kill his generals, ten thousand men will raise their blades in unison. Thus no one under Heaven will be able to withstand them in battle. 3.2 In antiquity the soldiers were organized into squads of five and ten, the chariots into companies and rows. When the drums sounded and the pennants flew, it never happened that the first to scale the walls were not outstanding state soldiers of great strength! The first to die were also always outstanding state soldiers of great strength. If the enemy suffers a loss of one man and we lose a hundred, it enriches the enemy and greatly diminishes us! Through the ages, average generals have been unable to prevent this. When conscripts have been assigned to the army but they run off to their native places, or flee when they approach a battle, the harm caused by the deserters is great. Through the ages, average generals have been unable to prevent it. What can kill men beyond a hundred paces are bows and arrows, What can kill a man within fifty paces are spears and halberds. When the general drums the advance but the officers and troops yell at each other, twist their arrows, breaking them, smash their spears, cradle their halberds, and find it advantageous to go to the rear, and when the battle commences and all these occur, it will be internally self-defeating. Through the ages, average generals have been unable to prevent them. Soldiers breaking away from their squads of five and ten; chariots moving away from their companies and rows; unorthodox forces abandoning their generals and fleeing; the masses also running off ; these are things which average generals through the ages have been unable to prevent. Now if a general can prevent these four situations, he will be able to traverse high mountains, cross over deep rivers, and assail strong formations. Being unable to prevent these four is like losing your boat and oars and crossing the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. It cannot be done 3.3 People do not take pleasure in dying, nor do they hate life, but if the commands and orders are clear, and the laws and regulations carefully detailed, you can make them advance. When, before combat, rewards are made clear, and afterwards punishments are made decisive, then when the troops move forth, they will be able to realize an advantage, and when they move, they will be successful. 3.4 Appoint a company commander for one hundred men, a Sima for one thousand men, and a general for ten thousand men. This is how a small number can control a large number, a smaller authority can manage a large group of people. If they listen to my techniques of management of troops, he can control the whole army as well. If no single man can escape punishment, fathers will not dare conceal their sons and sons will not dare conceal their fathers, so how much more so the citizens of the state? 3.5 If a warrior wields a sword to strike people in the marketplace, among ten thousand people, there will not be anyone who does not avoid him. If I say it is not that only one man is courageous, and that the ten thousand are useless, what is the reason? Being committed to dying and being committed to staying alive are not comparable. If you listen and use my techniques, you will find they are sufficient to cause the whole army to put their lives forward. No one will stand before them, no one will chase after them. They will be able to come and go without obstacles, characteristic of an army that belongs to a king or hegemon. 3.6 Who led a mass of one hundred thousand and no one under Heaven opposed him? Duke Huan. Who led a mass of seventy thousand and no one under Heaven opposed him? Wu Qi. Who led a mass of thirty thousand and no one under Heaven opposed him? Sun Zi. Today among the armies led by commanders from the various feudal states, there is not one that does not reach a mass of two hundred thousand men. Yet they are unable to succeed in establishing their merit, it is because they do not understand prohibitions, pardons, education and prevention. If you make the ordinances clear so that one man will be victorious, then ten men will also thereby be victorious. Thus I say if you improve our weapons and equipment, nurture our martial courage , when you release our forces it will be like a bird attacking, like water rushing down a thousand-fathom valley. Now, a state that finds itself in difficulty sends its valuable treasure out with emissaries to other states, sends its beloved sons out as hostages, and cedes land along its borders in order to obtain the. Although the troops coming to assist are said to have a strength of one hundred thousand, but in actuality they do not exceed several ten thousands. When their troops come forth there are no generals to whom the ruler has not said to:”Do not be be the first to fight.” In reality, one cannot enter battle with them. 3.7 If we want to manage the population within our borders, without the system of five, no one could order them. Through proper ordinances, the mass of ten thousand troops can then be used in battles. If such a mass has worn our uniform, ate our food and still cannot emerge victorious, then it is not the fault of the soldiers. It should be fault that is brought about internally. Even if we are aided by allied feudal states, and they behave like that of an slow horse, and the enemy acts like a strong horse, it would be like pitting a weak horse against a strong horse. How would it improve our disposition? 3.8 We should employ all resources available for our own use. We should study all the known regulations to create our own regulations. We should revise our commands and orders and make punishments and rewards clear. We should make clear that those who do not engage in agriculture, there will be no means to eat, and those that do not engage in battle or achieve battle merits, there will be no means to attain ranks. We should cause the people to compete to go out to the farms and into battle. Then we will remain invincible! Thus I say that when a command is promulgated, an order issued, its credibility will extend throughout the state. 3.9 If among the populace, there are those who say they can vanquish the enemy, do not allow them to speak idly but absolutely test their ability to fight. To look at people’s lands and have a desire to gain them, to divide up other rulers’s subjects and nourish them, one must be able to have the help of capable talents. If you are unable to bring in and employ your capable talents but want to possess all lands, you must destroy armies and slay generals. In this way, even though you may be victorious in battle, the state will grow increasingly weak. Even though you gain territory, the state will be increasingly impoverished. All this proceeds from the state’s bad regulations. 4.1 In general, in warfare, there are those who gain victory through the Way; those that gain victory through awesomeness, and those that gain victory through strength. Holding careful military discussion and evaluating the enemy, causing the enemy morale to be lost and his forces to be disunited so that even his disposition is complete, he will not be able to employ it, this is victory through the Way. Being precise about laws and regulations, making rewards and punishment clear, improving weapons and equipments, causing the people to have minds totally committed to fighting, this is victory through awesomeness. Destroying armies and slaying generals, using all tools to attack the city, overwhelming the populace and seizing territory, returning only after being successful, this is victory through strength. When kings and feudal lords know these, their education in the three ways to victory will be complete. 4.2 Now the means by which the general fights is the people; the means by which the people fight is their fighting spirit. When their fighting spirit is substantial they will fight; when their fighting spirit has been snatched away, they will run off. Before formation has been formed, before the soldiers have clashed, the means by which one overpower the enemy are five. 1. Producing great strategy to pre-empt 2. Giving the mandate to the correct person 3. Being able to cross into enemy’s border 4. Having great defense like deep moats and high walls 5. Proper mobilizing, deploying, and applying punitive measures to the enemy In these five cases, first evaluate the enemy and afterward move. In this way, you can attack their weakness and seize them. One who excels at employing the army is able to seize men and not be seized by others. This seizing requires wisdom. Orders unify the minds of the masses. When the masses are not understood by the general, the orders will have to be changed frequently. When orders are changed frequently, then even though orders are issued, the masses will not have faith in them. Thus the rule of thumb for giving commands is that small errors need not be rectified, minor doubts need not be cleared. Thus when those above do not issue doubtful orders, the masses will not listen to two different version. When actions do not have any questionable aspects, the multitude will not have divided intentions, There has never been an instance where the people did not believe in the capability of their leader and the general were still able to attain their strength. There has never been the case that the general did not make the masses voluntary offer their services and still gain their services. 4.3 A state must promote and practise etiquette, trust, familiarity, and love. And only then can it tolerate hunger and overcome problem. The state must first promote and practise filial piety, parental love, honesty and shame. And only then would people be willing to use their life to protect the state. In antiquity, rulers rule with respect and integrity, then use rewards and ranks to motivate the people. They educate the populace what is honesty and shame first, and punishments and fines afterwards; Comfort the populace with benevolence and love, and imposed constraints on the populace afterwards. 4.4 Thus those who engage in combat must take the lead in person in order to incite the masses and officers, just as the mind controls the four limbs. If the masses and officers are not incited, then they will not die for the country. When they will not die for the country, then the whole army cannot do battle. In order to stimulate the soldiers, the people’s material welfare has to be ample. The ranks of nobility, the degree of comforting for the dead, the materials by which the people chase after must be made evident. One must govern the people in accord with their needs. One must govern the people by giving due credit for achievements. Actually giving people rewards for going into field, feasting done together with relatives and friends, the mutual encouragement from fellow villagers, mutual assistance in times of crisis, marching off to war together – these are what stimulate the people. Ensure that the members of the squads five and ten take care of each other as though they are relatives, the members of the companies and their officers behave like close friends. When they stop they will be like a solid, encircling wall; when they move, they move like the wind and rain. The chariots will not make retreats, the soldiers will not turn about. This is the Way to establish the foundation for combat. 4.5 Land is the means for nourishing the populace; fortified cities the means for defending the land; combat the means for defending the cities. Thus if one concentrates on agriculture, the people will not be hungry; if one concentrates on defense, the land will not be endangered; if one concentrates on combat, the cities will not be encircled. These three were the fundamental concerns of the Former Kings, and among them military affairs were the most urgent. Therefore the Former Kings concentrated on five military affairs: When the food supply is not substantial, the soldiers do not set out. When rewards and salaries are not generous, the people are not stimulated. When martial warriors are not selected based on capabilities, the masses will not be strong. When the weapons and implements are not prepared, their fighting strength will not be great. When punishments and rewards are not appropriate, the masses will not respect them. If one emphasizes these five, then at rest, the army will be able to defend any place it secures, and in motion it will be able to attain its objectives. 4.6 As for moving from the state of motionless to going forth to attack, the defense should be strong. In deploying your troops, you want the formations to be solid. In launching an attack you want to make the utmost effort. And in going forth to battle, you want to be of one mind. 4.7 The state of a king enriches its people; the state of a hegemon enriches its officers. A state that merely survives enriches the high officials, and a state that is about to perish, enriches its the king’s own granaries and storehouses. Thus to satisfy the high ranks but neglect those at the bottom would result in a disaster that no rescue can be done to save it. 4.8 Thus I say that if you hire Worthy and give responsibility to the capable, even without selecting auspicious time to do it, will still be advantageous. If you make the laws clear and are cautious in issuing orders, then without performing divination, you will obtain good result. If you esteem achievement and nurture effort, without praying, you will attain blessings. Thus it is said, ‘Gaining the Heavenly timing is not as good as the advantages of terrain. Advantages of terrain are not as good as harmony among men.’ What sages esteem is human effort, that is all! 4.9 Now when the army is toiling on the march, the general must establish himself as an example. In the heat, he does not set up an umbrella; in the cold, he does not wear thicker clothes. On difficult terrain, he must dismount and walk. Only after the army’s well is finished does he drink. Only after the army’s food is cooked does he eat. Only after the army’s ramparts are complete does he rest. He must personally experience the same toil as his troops. Through this fashion, even though the army is in the field for a long time, it will be neither old nor exhausted. 5.1 Military is victorious through being quiet and calm; a state is victorious through being united. One whose strength is divided will be weak; one whose minds have doubts will be have their fighting spirit lowered. Now when one’s strength is weak, advancing and retreating will not be bold, and when pursuing an enemy will not result in anyone being captured. Generals, commanders, officers, and troops should be a single body both in action and at rest. But if the commander’s mind is already doubtful or the troops inclined to disobey, then even though a plan has been decided on they will not move, or if movement has been initiated, they cannot be controlled. When different mouths speak of empty words, the general lacks the proper demeanor, and the troops have not been properly trained, if they set out to attack they will inevitably be defeated. This is what is referred to as army that is too sick to attack. It is inadequate for engaging in warfare. Now the general is the mind of the army, while all those below are the limbs and joints. When the mind is determined and focus, then the limbs and joints are invariably strong. When the mind moves in doubt, then the limbs and joints are invariably slow and weak. Now if the general cannot have the cooperation of his troops like the mind moving the limbs as when and where it wants it to be, then even though the army might be victorious, it will be a lucky victory, not the result of the tactical balance of power in attack. 5.2 Now the troops will not fear the enemy and their general at the same time. If they fear us then they will despise the enemy; if they fear the enemy they will despise us. The general who is despised will be defeated; the general who establishes his awesomeness will be victorious. In general, when the general is able to establish awesomeness, his commander will fear him. When the commander fear their general, the troops will fear their commanders. When the troops fear their commanders, then the enemy will fear the troops. For this reason, those who would know the Way of victory and defeat, must first figure out the relationship between fearing and despising. Now one who is gained the goodwill of the troops through love, he cannot use the troops; one who is not respected and feared in the minds of his troops, he cannot use the troops. Love make the troops follow orders, awesomeness is established from above. If they love their general they will not have divided minds; if they are awestruck by their general they will not be rebellious. Thus excelling at generalship is merely a question of exercising love and awesomeness. 5.3 One who is unsure of victory, should not rush into battle. One who is unsure of capturing a city, should not launch an assault on the city. Otherwise, their punishments and rewards were not sufficiently trusted. Credibility must be established before the moment of need; affairs must be managed before the first signs appear. Thus the masses, when once assembled, should not be dismissed. When the army has set forth, it should not return empty-handed. They will seek the enemy as if searching for a lost son; they will attack the enemy as if rescuing a drowning man, with haste. 5.4 One who occupies strategic points lacks the mind to do battle. One who lightly provokes a battle lacks fullness of fighting spirit. One who is belligerent in battle lacks soldiers capable of victory. 5.5 Now in general, one who starts a war in the name of righteousness, values initiating the conflict. One who contends out of personal animosity should responds only when it is unavoidable. Troops mobilized because of hatred, should await the enemy and act after them. Thus to start a war, one must look at the timing to start it. When the war has ended, one must still be alert and fully prepared. 5.6 There are wars that are victorious because of great plans from court; there are those that achieve victory in the plains and battlefields; and those that attain victory by attacking the cities. Those that fight can gain victory; those that submit and are lost; and those that are fortunate not to be defeated, as in cases where the enemy is unexpectedly frightened and victory is gained by a turn of events. This sort of victory gained by turn of events is said not to be a complete victory. What is not a complete victory lacks any claim to having effected a tactical imbalance in power. Thus the enlightened ruler, on the day for the attack, will concentrate on having the drums and horns sound in unison and the army marching in unison as well. Thus without seeking victory, he can still be victorious. There are armies who from the front looks unprepared or weak, but still able to achieve victory because they have a strategy for victory, are well-prepared, good execution of plans and under great leadership. For five men there is a squad leader, for ten men a lieutenant, for one hundred men a company captain, for one thousand men a battalion commander, and for ten thousand men a general. This organization is already all-encompassing, already perfected. If a man dies in the morning, another will replace him that morning; if a man dies in the evening, another will replace him that evening. The wise ruler weighs the tactical balance of power with the enemy, evaluates the general, and only thereafter mobilizes the army. 5.7 Thus in general, when assembling an army a thousand li away, they must arrive within ten days and when a hundred li, they must arrive within one day, while the assembly point should be at the enemy’s border. When the troops have assembled and the generals has arrived, the army should penetrate deeply into their territory, sever their roads, and occupy their large cities and large towns. Have the troops and the citizens ascend the walls and press the enemy into endangered positions. Have the configuration of the terrain and attack any strategic barriers. Occupy the terrain around a city or town and sever the various roads about it, follow up by attacking the city itself. If the enemy’s generals and armies are unable to believe in each other, the officers and troops unable to be in harmony and this situation happen to a point where there are those unaffected by punishments, we will defeat them. Before the rescue party has arrived, a city will have already surrendered. If fords and bridges have not yet been constructed, strategic barriers not yet repaired, dangerous points in the city walls not yet fortified, and the iron caltrops not yet set out, then even though they have a fortified city, they do not have any defense. If the troops from distant forts have not yet entered the city, the border guards and forces in other states not yet returned, then even though they have men, they do not have any men! If the domesticated animals have not yet been herded in, the grains not yet harvested, the wealth and materials for use not yet collected, then even though they have resources they do not have any resources. Now when a city is empty and void and its resources are exhausted we should take advantage of this vacuity to attack them, The Art of War says, ‘They go out alone, they come in alone. Even before the enemy’s men can cross blades with them, they have attained victory.’ This is what is meant. 6.1 In general, when the defenders do not occupy the outer walls of cities nor the borderlands and when they retreat do not establish watchtowers and barricades for the purpose of defensive warfare, they do not excel at defense. The valiant and brave, sturdy armor and sharp weapons, powerful crossbows and strong arrows should all be within the outer walls, and then all the grain stored outside in the earthen cellars and granaries collected, and the buildings outside the outer wall broken down and citizens brought into the fortifications. This will allow the attackers to grow their fighting spirit, while the defenders’ fighting spirit will be cut to half. The defenders will suffer heavy losses. Yet, generals through the ages have not known such principles . 6.2 Now the defenders should not neglect their strategic points. The rule for defending a city wall is that for every zhang, you should employ ten men to defend it – artisans and cooks not being included. Those who go out to forth do not defend the city; those that defend the city do not go out to fight. One man on defense can oppose ten men besieging them; ten men can oppose one hundred men; one hundred men can oppose one thousand men; one thousand men can oppose ten thousand men, Thus constructing a city’s interior and exterior walls is not just accumulating loose soil and tamping it down, wantonly expend the strength of the people. It is truly for defense. If a wall is one thousand zhang, then ten thousand men should defend it. The moats should be deep and wide, the walls solid and thick, the soldiers and people prepared firewood and foodstuffs provided, the crossbows stout and arrows strong, the spears and halberds sharpened. This is the method for making defense solid. 6.3 If the attackers number at least a hundred thousand while the defenders have a reinforcement outside that will certainly come to the rescue, it is a city that can be defended. If there is no reliable reinforcement to inevitably rescue them, then it is not a city that can be defended. Now if the walls are solid and rescue certain, then even stupid men and ignorant women will all – without exception – will give their all do defend the city. For a city to withstand a siege for one year, the strength of the defenders should exceed that of the attackers and the strength of the reinforcement exceed that of the defenders. Now if walls are solid but rescue uncertain or reinforcement cannot be depended upon, then the stupid men and ignorant women – all without exception – will defend on the parapets, but they will weep. This is normal human emotion. Even if you thereupon open the grain reserves in order to relieve and pacify them, you cannot stop it. You must incite the valiant and brave, with their sturdy armor, sharp weapons, strong crossbows, and stout arrows to exert their strength in the front and the young, weal, crippled, and ill to exert their strength together in the rear. 6.4. If an army of a hundred thousand is encamped beneath the city walls, the reinforcement must break open the siege, and the city’s defenders must go out to attack. When they move forth, they must secure the critical positions along the way. But the reinforcement to the rear of the besiegers should not sever their supply lines, and the forces within and without should respond to each other. This sort of rescue display a half-heated commitment and we can await for the opportunity to topple the attackers. To deal with the reinforcement, the enemy general will put their stalwarts in the rear, and place the old in the forefront. Then the enemy will not be able to advance, nor be able to stop the defenders from breaking out. This is what is meant by the ‘tactical balance of power in defense’. 7.1 Awesomeness lies in being firm in decisions. Beneficence lies in giving at the correct time. Adapting to changes lies in promptly responding to affairs. Warfare lies in controlling morale and fighting spirit. Attacks lies in surprises. Defense lies in manipulating external appearance. Flawless lies in being detailed in planning. Not encountering difficulty lies in foresight and preparation. Being cautious lies in paying attention to small matters. Wisdom lies in controlling the macro picture. Eliminating harm lies in being decisive. Gaining the masses lies in deferring to other men. Regret arises from relying on what is doubtful. Evil lies in excessive executions. Prejudice comes from frequently following one’s own desires. Non-accomplishment arise from detesting to hear about one’s errors. Extravagance lies in exhausting the people’s resources. Non-enlightenment lies in accepting advice which separates you from reality. Being impractical stems from lightly initiating movements. Stubbornness and shallow lies in staying away from the capable and worthy. Misfortune lies in loving profits. Harm lies in drawing common men near. Demise lies in lacking preparation. Danger lies in lacking clear commands and orders. 8.1. In general, when employing the military do not attack cities that have not committed transgressions or slay men who are innocent. Whoever kills people’s fathers and elder brothers; whoever profits himself by plundering the riches and goods of other men; whoever makes slaves of the sons and daughters of other men is in all cases a brigand. For this reason, the military provides the means to execute the brutal and chaotic and to stop the unrighteous. Wherever the army is applied, we must try to retain the farmers in the fields, the merchants in their shops and the officials in their offices, For the use of military is to punish the one man that started the atrocities. Thus even without the forces bloodying their blades, all will give their allegiance. 8.2. A state of ten thousand chariots concentrates on both agriculture and warfare. A state of one thousand chariots focuses on being able to rescue and defend itself. A state of one hundred chariots commits itself to be self-sufficient. Those engaged in agriculture and warfare, the ability to start battle depends on itself and not external; those who can rescue and defend itself, do not seek aid outside themselves; and those who can be self-sufficient, do not seek material resources outside themselves. Now if one’s resources are neither sufficient to go forth to wage battle nor adequate to remain within the borders and defend the state, one must correct the insufficiency with markets. Markets are the means to provide for both offensive and defensive warfare. A state of ten thousand chariots may not be like states of one thousand chariots focusing on being able to rescue and defend itself, it must have markets like states of hundred chariots. 8.3 In general, executions provide the means to illuminate army’s awesomeness.If by executing one man, the entire army will be shaken, kill him. If by killing one man, ten thousand men will rejoice , kill him. In executing, should start with those of high authority; in rewarding, should start with those of low positions. If someone should be killed, then even though he is honored and powerful, he must be executed, for this will be punishment that reaches the pinnacle. When rewards extend down to the cowherds and stable boys, this is rewards flowing down to the lowest. Now the ability to implement punishments that read the pinnacle and rewards that flow down to the lowest, is the general’s martial charisma. Thus rulers should value such generals. 8.4. Now when the commanding general takes up the drum, to direct an army that is going into battle, when the swords clashed, if the general directs well, he will be rewarded for his achievements and his fame will be established. If he does not direct well, he himself will die and the state will perish. For this reason survival and extinction, security and danger all lie at the ability of the general. How can one not value the general? 8.5 Now taking up the drums and wielding the drumsticks, having the soldiers collide and the blades clash so that the ruler achieves great success through military affairs, all these I do not find to be difficult. The Ancients said, ‘Attacking without chariots with protective covering, defending without equipment such as the caltrops, this is what is meant by an army that does not excel at anything!’ Impoverished army lacking of equipments and supplies stem from the state not having markets. Now markets should be regulated by officers from the government. The government should buy items which are cheap in the market and sell those that are expensive in order to restrain the aristocrats and people. People only eat one dou of grain, and horses eat three dou beans, so why is it the people have a famished look and the horses an emaciated appearance? This is because the markets have goods to deliver but lacks a controller. Now if you raise the best trained army but do not manage the markets, one would be unable to conduct warfare. 8.6 To be able to retain men in service straight from their mobilization to the time when their armor and helmets have become worm infested, they must be men whom we can employ gainfully. This is like a bird of prey pursuing a sparrow which flies into a man’s arm or enters someone’s dwelling. It is not that the sparrow is casting away its life, but that to the rear, there is something to fear. 8.7 When Tai Gong Wang was seventy, he butchered cows at Chao ge and sold food in Meng Jin. He was more than seventy years old, but the ruler did not give an office to him and people all referred to him as a mad fellow. Then when he met King Wen of Zhou Dynasty he commanded a mass of thirty thousand and with one battle, the country was settled. Without his wisdom and strategic planning, how could they have achieved this unification? Thus there is a saying. ‘If a good horse is whipped, a distant road can be traversed; if Worthies and men of rank unite together, the way to good governance will be illuminated.’ 8.8 When King Wu of Zhou attacked King Zhou of Shang, the army forded the Yellow River at Meng Chin. On the right was the king’s pennant., on the left the axe of punishment, together with three hundred warriors committed to die and thirty thousand fighting men. King Zhou’s formation deployed several hundred thousand men, with the infamous ministers, Fei Lian and E Lai personally leading against halberdiers and axe bearers. Their lines stretched across a hundred li. King Wu did not exhaust the warriors or people, the soldiers did not bloody their blades, and they conquered the Shang Dynasty and executed King Zhou. There was nothing auspicious nor abnormal; it was merely a case of perfecting oneself, or not perfecting oneself, in human affairs. Generals of the present generation investigate ‘singular days’ and ‘empty mornings’, divine about Xian CHi, interpret full and disastrous days, accord with the tortoise shell augury, look for the auspicious and baleful, and observe the changes of the planets, constellations, and winds – wanting to thereby gain victory and establish their success. I view this as very difficult. 8.9 Now the commanding general is not governed by timing and trends, controlled by terrain below, not governed by men. Weapons are evil implements. War is contrary to virtue. The post of the general is an office of death and lives. Thus only when it cannot be avoided does one employ them. In directing a war, the general should not be restricted by timings and trends, should not be limited by terrain, should not be restricted by ruler at the rear and restricted by enemy in the front. The unified army of one man should be like the wolf and tiger, like the wind and rain, like thunder and lightning, with awesomeness and mysterious, All under heaven are terrified by it. The army that would be victorious is like water. Now water is the softest and weakest of things, but whatever it collides with – such as hills and mounds – will be collapsed by it for no other reason than its nature is concentrated and its ‘attack’ is totally committed. Now if one has the sharpness of the famous sword Mo Yeh, the toughness of rhinoceros hide for armor, the large masses of the army and using orthodox and unorthodox methods, then under heaven, no one can withstand him in battle. Thus it is said that if you use the Worthy and employ the talented, even if the hour and day are not auspicious, your affairs will still be advantageous. If you make the laws clear and are cautious about orders, without divining the tortoise shell or milfoil you will obtain propitious results. If you honor achievement and nurture effort, without praying, you will obtain good fortune. It is also said that ‘timing and trends are not as good as the advantage of terrain; the advantages of terrain are not as good as harmony among men.’ The sages of antiquity stressed human effort, that is all. 8.10 When Wu Qi engaged Qin in battle, wherever he encamped, he will not flatten the ground where he sleeps on. He used young saplings to provid protective covering against the frost and dew. Why did he act like this? Because he did not place himself higher than other men. If you want me to die, you do not require them to perform perfunctory acts of respect. If you want men to exhaust their strength, you do not hold them responsible for performing the rites. Thus, in antiquity an officer wearing a helmet and armor did not bow, showing people that he is does not troubled want to trouble anyone. Annoy people, and yet require them to die, to exhaust their strength, from antiquity till today has never been heard of. 8.11 When the commanding general receives his mandate, he forgets his family. When he commands the army and they encamp in the field, he forgets those close to him. When he takes up the drumsticks and drums the advance, he forgets his safety. When Wu Qi approached the time for battle, his attendants offered their swords. Wu Qi said: “The general takes sole control of orders given. When a decision needs to be made, he makes it. He controls the troops and directs their blades. Such is the work of the general. Charging at the enemy, as a single soldier, that is not a general’s affair.” 8.12 When the army has assumed formation, they should advance for a day and complete a total of three days’ distance. Beyond the three days’ distance, they should be like a dammed river that has been released. Observing the enemy in front, one should employ their strengths. If the enemy’s flags are white, we use white flags; if they are using red banners then we use red banners. 8.13 When Wu Qi engaged Qin in battle, before the armies clashed, one man – unable to overcome his courage – went forth to slay two of the enemy and return with their heads. Wu Qi immediately ordered his decapitation. An army commander remonstrated with him, saying: “This is a skilled warrior. You cannot execute him. ” Wu Qi replied: “There is no question that he is a skilled warrior, But it is not what I ordered.” He had him executed. 9.1 In general, a general is an officer of the law and punishment, the manager of all matters. He should not favor anyone. When he does not favor anyone, everything is within his control and he can control anything. The perfect man does not stop criminals more than five paces away. Even though they may have shot at him with barbed arrows, he does not pursue past vengeance. He excels at discovering the nature of a criminal’s offense. Without relying torture, he can obtain a complete understanding of the offender’s situation. If you flog a person’s back, brand his ribs, or compress his fingers in order to question him about the nature of his offense, even a state hero could not withstand this cruelty and would falsely implicate himself. 9.2 There is a saying in our age: ‘One who has thousands of pieces of gold will not die; one who has hundreds pieces of gold will not suffer corporal punishment.’ If you listen to my suggestion and try them in practice, then even a person with wisdom of Yao or Shun will not be able to avert a word of the charge against him, nor one with ten thousand pieces of gold be able to use the smallest silver piece to escape punishment. At the present, those in prison awaiting judgement number no less than several tens in the smallest jails, no less than several hundred in the middle-sized jails, and no less than several thousand in the largest prisons.Ten men involved one hundred men in their affairs; one hundred men drag in one thousand; and one thousand trap ten thousand. Those that have become entangled first are parents and brothers; next relatives; and next those who are acquaintances and old friends. For this reason, the farmers all leave their occupation in the fields, the merchants depart from their stores, and the officials leave their posts. These good people have all been dragged in because of the nature of our criminal proceedings. The Art of War says: ‘When an army of ten thousand goes forth, its daily expense is a thousand pieces of gold.’ Now when there are ten thousand good people thus entangled and imprisoned, yet the ruler is unable to investigate the situation – I take it to be dangerous! 10.1 Bureaucratic offices are the means to control affairs and are the foundation of state administration. Regulations on four groups that is derived according to their occupations are the parameters of administration. Honor, rank, riches and salaries must be appropriately determined by capabilities and characters for they are the embodiment of nobility and humbleness. Treating the good well and punishing the evil, rectifying the laws for organizing the people, and collecting taxes and impositions are implements for governing the people. Making land distributions equitable and restraining taxes and other impositions on the people provide measure to what is levied and bestowed. Regulating the artisans and preparing implements for use is contribution of the master artisans. Dividing the territory and occupying the strategic points is the work of eliminating oddities and stopping chaos. Preserving the laws, investigating affairs and making decision are the roles of subordinates. Illuminating the duties of the bureaucrats, setting responsibilities as light or heavy – these fall under the authority of the ministers and ruler. Making rewards and bestowals clear, being strict in executing and punishing are methods for stopping evil. Being cautious about what to undertake and what to give up, insisting on one united policy are the essentials of government. When information from below reaches to high and the concerns of high penetrate to below, this is the most ideal situations. 10.2 By knowing the extent of the state’s resources, you can plan to use the surplus. Knowing the weakness of others is the way to strengthening oneself; knowing the movements of others is the because we are calm. Officers are divided into the civil and martial, because these are the two areas the ruler administer the state. The ceremonial vessels are all regulated, for they are being used by the Son of Heaven’s convocation. When itinerant persuaders and spies have no means to gain entrance, this is the technique for rectifying and preserving discussions. The feudal lords have their rites for honoring the Son of Heaven, and rulers and their people – generation after generation – continue to acknowledge the king’s mandate to rule. If someone changes or creates new rites, alter what is normal, or contravenes the king’s illustrious Virtue, then in accord with the rites, the king can attack them. Officials with no affairs to administer, a ruler without rank or rewards that need to be bestowed, a populace without criminal cases or lawsuits, a state without traders or merchants – how perfected the king’s rule! What I have so clearly proposed and the ruler heed and take actions to move towards it, it is because of the rulers high morality. 11.1 In general, what is the way to govern men (populace)? I say that without the five grains, you have nothing to fill their stomachs, without silk and hemp, nothing to cover their form. Thus to fill their stomachs there are grains and to cover their form there is thread. Husbands work at weeding and plowing, wives at weaving. If people do not have secondary occupations, then there will be goods, accumulated in the storehouses. The men should not engrave nor make decorative carving; the women should not embroider nor do decorative stitching. Carved wooden vessels allows water to seep in, metal utensils have offensive smell. The Sage drinks from an earthen vessel and eats from an earthen vessel. Thus when clay is formed to make utensils, there will be no waste. 11.2 Today, people think the nature of metal and wood is not afraid of cold, thus they embroider their clothes with them. The original nature of horses and oxen is to eat grass and drink water, but people give them beans and grains. This is governing which has lost its foundation, and it would be appropriate to establish regulations to control it. In spring and summer, the men go out to the southern fields, and in the fall and winter, the women work at weaving cloth, the people will not be impoverished. Today, when their short, coarse clothing does not even cover their bodies nor the dregs of wine and husks of grain fill their stomachs, the foundation of government has been lost. Since antiquity, the land has not become more fertile or barren, the people has not become more diligent or lazy. How could the ancients have attained a state of being well fed and well clothed, how could we have lost it now? The men do not finish plowing their fields, the women do not finish weaving cloths, so how could they not be hungry and cold? Probably, the administration of the ancients was fully effected while that of today stops before thorough implementation. 11.3 Now what is term as good governance is causing the people not to have any selfish interests. If the people do not have selfish interests, then all will be one family. In the absence of private plowing and weaving, they will suffer the cold together, they will experience hunger together. Then even if one have ten sons, they will not have the expense of even an extra bowl of rice, while if one have one son, their expenses will not be reduced by even one bowl. As such, would there be any clamoring and drunken indulgence that ruin the good people? When the people stimulate each other to frivolity and extravagance, the misfortunes that come with the desiring mind and of the competition to seize things arise. When one person starts to hoard, and then other people seek to selfishly accumulate some extra food and have some stored wealth. If this continues, crime will happen, arrest would then have to be made and punishment have to be meted out. The ruler is then not fitted to become one. 11.4 Those that excel at governing take hold of the regulations, causing the people not to have any selfish interests. When those below do not dare to be selfish, there will not be any who commit evil. Return to the foundation, accord with unselfish principle, have all issue move along the Way, and then the desiring mind will be eliminated. And competition will be stopped, the jails will be empty, the fields full, the grains plentiful, lives of the populace will be stable. All surrounding tribes will feel that they are cared. Then outside your borders there will not be any difficulty, while within the state there will be neither violence nor turbulence. This is the perfection of administration. 11.5 The azure sky – no ones know its extremity! Of the ancient emperors and Sage kings, who should be your model? Ages that have passed cannot be regained, future ages cannot be awaited. Seek them in yourself. 11.6 There are four qualities for one referred to as the Son of Heaven: Great intelligence, great benevolence, vast accomplishment and invincible. These are the aspects of the Son of Heaven. 11.7 Wild animals are not used for sacrificial offerings, miscellaneous studies do not make a scholastic study. 11.8 There is saying: “The hundred li of the sea cannot quench one man’s greed; a spring three feet deep can slake the thirst of the Army.” I say: “Desire is born from lack of self-check, perversity is born from lacking prohibitions.” The highest ruler transforms the spirit first, relies on trends as secondary, the third is not taking the people away from their seasonal work or seizing the people’s wealth. Now prohibitions must be completed through martialt, rewards must be completed through the civil. 12.1 The Art of War states: “One thousand men provide the means to exercise the war tactics, ten thousand men provide the means to exercise martial prowess. If you apply the force of tactical power to the enemy first, he will no be able to commit in strength. If you apply martial prowess first, the enemy will not be able to withstand your attack.” Thus in warfare, it values first mover the most. If one is able to understand and implement the principle, then it will conquer the enemy. If one is not able to understand and implement the principle, then it will not conquer them. Now when we attack, they will defend; when the attack, we will defend. These mutually produce victory and defeat. The pattern of battle is as such. Detailed planning comes from observing both the enemy and our side. Grabbing opportunities and advantages comes from being flexible in our plans. If you have something, pretend not to have it; if you lack something, appear to have it. Then how can the enemy trust the appearance? 12.2 The reason why the deeds of Former Kings are passed down till now is that they entrusted the upright with responsibility and eliminated the deceitful. They always preserved the benevolent and congenial hearts but were decisive, without delaying, in effecting punishments. 12.3 One who understands the Way of warfare will invariably first plan against the defeats which arise from not knowing when to stop. Why must one always think that advancing would be successful? If you advance too recklessly and seek to engage the enemy in battle, should they – on the contrary – have plans in place to stop you going forth, the enemy will control the victory. Thus the Art of War says: If they seek us, engage them; when you see them, attack. When the aggressors dare not oppose us, press the attack, and they will inevitably lose their opportunity to control the situation. 12.5 Those from whom the initiative has been taken have low fighting spirit; those who are afraid are unable to mount a defense; those who have suffered defeat is because they have no men to fight. They are all cases of an army general that is not able to command and manage his troops well. When you decide to go forth and have no doubts, then follow your plan. When you taken the initiative and attack the enemy and still no one confronts you, press the attack home. If you can have a clear picture of the enemy’s situation and occupy the high ground, then overawe them into submissions. This is the pinnacle of implementing the art of war. 13.1 If a general commanding one thousand men or more retreats from battle, surrenders his defenses, or abandons his terrain and deserts his troops, he is termed as ’state brigand’, someone who has stolen from the state. He should be executed, his family exterminated, his name expunged from the registers, his ancestral graves broken open, his bones exposed in marketplace, If commander of one hundred or more men retreats from battle, surrenders his defenses or abandon his terrain and deserts his troops, he is termed an ‘army brigand’. He should be executed, his family exterminated and his male and female children shall serve in government as slaves. If you cause the people to fear heavy punishment within the state, then outside the state they will regard the enemy lightly. Thus the Former Kings made the regulations and measures clear before making their punishment heavy. When punishments are heavy, then they will fear them within the state. When they fear them within the state, then they will be stalwart outside it. 14.1 Within the army, the regulations for organizations should be as follows: Five men comprise a squad of five, with all the members being mutually responsible for each other. Ten men comprise a squad of ten, with all the members being mutually responsible for each other. Fifty men compose a platoon, with all the members being mutually responsible for each other. One hundred men comprise a company, with all the members being mutually responsible for each other. If any member of the squad of five violates an order or commits an offense, should the others report it, their punishment will be remitted. If they know about it but do not report it, then the entire squad will be punished. If any member of the squad of ten violates an order or commits an offense, should the others report it, their punishment will be remitted. If they know about it but do not report it, then the entire squad will be punished. If any member of a platoon violates an order or commits an offense, should the others report it, their punishment can be remitted. If they know about it but do not report it, then the entire platoon will be punished. If a member of a company violates an order or commits an offense, should the others report it, their punishment will be remitted. If they know about it but do not expose him, the entire company will be punished. All the officers – from the level of the squad of ten up to the top generals in command, superiors and inferiors – are mutually responsible for each other. If someone violates an order or commits and offense, those that report it will be spared from punishment, while those who know about it but do not report it will all share the same offense. Now when the members of the squads of five and ten are mutually bonded and the upper and lower ranks are mutually linked, no perversity will remain undiscovered, no offense will remain unreported. Fathers will not be able to cover for their sons, elder brothers will not be able to cover for their younger brothers. How much less so will the people of the state, living and eating together, be able to violate orders and conceal each other? 15.1 The Central, Left, Right, Forward and Rear armies all have their designated camping ground – each surrounded on all four sides by temporary walls – with no passage among them permitted. The general has his designated terrain; the regimental commander has his designated camping ground; and the company commander has his designated camping ground. They should all construct ditches and sluices and make the orders blocking passageways so that it is impossible for someone who is not a member of the company to pass through. If someone who is not a member of the company enters, then the commander should execute him. If he fails to execute him, he will share the offence with him. Along the roads that leads to the encampment, , set up lookout posts every 120 paces. Survey the men and the terrain to make sure the lookout posts should be within sight of each other. Prohibit crossing over the roads and make sure the road are always clear. If a soldier does not have a tally or token issued by a general or commanding officers, he cannot pass through. Wood gatherers, fodder seekers and animal herders need to form and move in squads of five. If they are not moving in squads of five, they cannot pass through. If an officer does not have a token, if the solders are not in orderly arrangment, the guards at the crossing gates should execute them. If anyone oversteps the demarcation lines, execute him. Thus if within the army, no one contravenes nor violates the prohibitions, then without there will not be any perversity that is not caught. 16.1 The orders which bind the squad of five state: ‘Five men comprise the squad of five. They collectively write an agreement that binds them together and the agreement kept with the commander. If in battle they lose men but capture or kill an equivalent number of enemies, they negate each other. If they capture members of an enemy squad without losing anyone themselves, they will be rewarded. If they lose members without capturing or killing equal number of the enemy, they will be killed and their families implicated. If they lose their squad leader but capture a squad leader, the two negate each other. If they capture a squad leader without losing their own, they will be rewarded. If they lose their squad leader without capturing an enemy squad leader, they will be killed and their families exterminated. However if they rejoin the battle and take the head of a squad leader, then their punishment will be lifted. If they lose their general or kill one, the two negate each other. If they capture a general without losing their own, they will be rewarded. If they lose their general and do not kill an enemy general, they should be considered according to the Law for Abandoning Their positions and Fleeing.’ The martial law during war states: ‘The leader of a squad of ten can execute the other nine. A company commander can execute double squad leaders. The general of one thousand men can execute company commanders. The general of ten thousand men can execute the general of one thousand men. The generals of the Left and Right Armies can execute the generals of ten thousand men. The Grand General has no one he cannot execute.’ 17.1 To regulate the troops, segment them into three armies. The Left Army will have green flags, and the troops will wear green feathers. The Right Army will have white flags, and the troops will wear white feathers. The Central Army will have yellow flags, and the troops will wear yellow feathers. The troops will have five emblems: The front line will have the green emblems, the second row red emblems, the third row yellow emblems, the fourth row white emblems, and the fifth row black emblems. The next rule for regulating the troops is that anyone who loses his emblem will be punished. The first five lines place their emblems on their heads; the next five lines place their emblems on their necks; the next five on their chest, the next five on their stomachs and the last five on their waists. In this way, it will never happen that the troops will have someone other than their own officers or officers other than their own troops. If someone sees a case where it is incorrect but does not inquire about it, or sees confusion but does not act to stop it, his crime will be comparable to that of the offender. When the drums sound for the troops to move and engage in battle, those lines that move forward confront the danger, while those that retreat to the rear are reviled. Those who venture forward past the five lines will be rewarded; those that retreat past the five lines to the rear will be executed. By this rule, it can be known that advancing and retreating, moving to the fore and rear are achievements. Thus it is said: ‘If you beat the drum, they advance like thunderclap, they move like the wind and rain, no one will dare oppose you to the fore, no one will dare chase after you to the rear.’ This speaks volume about having regulations. 18.1 Gongs , drums, bells and flags – these four instruments each have their methods of employment. When the drum sounds, the army should advance; when the drums are beat again, they should attack. When the gongs sound, they should stop; when the gongs are struck again, they should withdraw. Bells are used to transmit order. When flags point to the left, the army should go left; when the flags point to the right then to the right. For non regular units these signals should be mixed up. Beat the drum once and they may move to the left; beat it another time and they may advance to the left. For each step there is one beat, this is the pace beat. If for the ten steps, there is one beat, this is the quick march beat. If the drumming is unbroken, this is the racing beat. The shang note comes from the general’s drum. The jiao note comes from that of a regimental commander’s drum. The low pitch drum is that of a company commander. When the three drums sound together, the generals, regimental commander and company commanders are all of one mind. For the non regular units, these signals should be mixed up. If a drummer misses a beat, he is executed. Those that set up a clamor are executed. Those that do not obey the gongs, drums, bells, and flags but move by themselves are executed. When combat methods are taught to one hundred men, after their instruction is complete unite them with other companies to comprise of one thousand men. When the instructions of one thousand men is complete, unite them with other regiments to comprise of ten thousands. When the instruction of the armies of ten thousands are complete, assemble them into one army. When the masses of the army can divide and unite, they can then execute the methods of large scale combat. When the army’s instructions are complete, test them with military maneuvers. 18.2 For a well trained army: In a square formation, they are victorious; in a circular formation, they are also victorious; in a very uneven array, they are also victorious; and if they encounter difficult terrain, they will also emerge victorious. If the enemy is in the mountains, climb after him. If the enemy is in the depths, plunge in after him. Seek the enemy as if searching for a lost child, seek him without any doubt and fast. In this way, you will be able to defeat the enemy and control his fate. Now one must make decision early and determine plans beforehand. If plans are not first determined, if intentions are not decided early, then neither advancing nor retreating will be in order. When doubts arise, defeat is certain. Thus an orthodox army values being first; an unorthodox values being afterward. Being first, being afterward – these are ways to control the enemy. Generals throughout the ages who does not understand the principles, after receiving their commission to go forward, rush to be first to launch an attack – relying on courage alone. There were none who were not defeated. Their actions should be hesitant but are not; their movements should be confident but are not; their movement should be at times slow, at times rapid but is neither slow nor rapid when it needs to. These three situations drags the army in battle. 19.1 Before the commanding general is about to receive his commission, the ruler must first discuss military strategy in the ancestral temple, then issue the order in court. The ruler personally grants Axe of Authority to the general, saying: “The Left, Right and Central Armies have their separate responsibilities. If anyone oversteps the boundary of their responsibility to seek the intercession of higher ranks, he shall be put to death. Within the army, there cannot be two sources of orders. Anyone who issues a second order shall be executed. Anyone who withhold orders shall be executed. Anyone who delays the implementation of an order shall be executed. Anyone who disobeys an order shall be executed. The general of the army makes the announcement: “To those about to go out beyond the gates of the state capital, the time for assembling is set as midday. Within the encampment, we shall set up a gnomon and place it at the front gate. Those who arrive past the designated time will be subject to the provision of the law.” When the general of the army has entered the encampment, he closes the gate and has the roads cleared. Anyone that dares enter or leave the encampment without permission will be executed. Anyone that dares to make a big clamor will be executed. Those that do not follow orders will be executed. 20.1 What is referred to as the vanguard moves off from the main force about one hundred li, arriving at a designated place and an appointed time. It carries three-days supply of prepared food. It move in front of the main army. Only when they have confirmed the orders and signals, then they move off. Before they move off, one should reward them to motivate them, and deploy them as the disposition of each army changes. This is the method to move the troops. The advance army moves in front of the vanguard. When order to move off is raised, it moves off from the main force double the vanguard’s distance – about one hundred li ahead of the vanguard, arriving at the designated place and time. They carry six-days supply of prepared food. They are ordered to prepare for the battle and deploy troops to occupy strategic positions. If the battle turns to the army’s advantage, they pursue the retreating enemy; if the forces are stalemated, they race into the enemy. If the vanguard encounters anyone who has turned back, they should execute him. What are termed the armies of generals, consist of four forces and they are the main, advance, vanguard, pockets of army and using them would allow the general to wrest victory. The army has its squads of ten and five and the methods of dividing and reuniting. Before engaging in battle, duties are assigned, and designated units should occupy the strategic locations, passes, and bridges. When the orders for uniting to engage in battle is raised, they should all assemble. The main army sets out with a fixed daily ration and their combat equipment all complete. The orders are issued and they move; anyone does not follow orders is executed. Now determine and assign forces to the strategic points within the borders of the state. After the advance army and vanguard have already set out, the people within the borders are not able to move about. Those who have received the king’s commands, who have been given and carry the proper tallies and tokens are officers acting in accord with their duties. Officers who are not acting in accord with their duties but yet move should be executed. When the main army has moved off, these officers – acting in accord with their duties – travel about and are employed to ensure that army affairs are mutually regulated. Accordingly, one who wants to wage warfare must first secure the interior. 21.1 Rules for instructing the soldiers: When dispersing them to their encampments, and have them assume formation, those who advance or retreat contrary to orders should be punished for the crime of contravening instructions. The front lines are instructed by the commander of the front lines; the rear lines are instructed by the commander of the rear lines; the lines to the left are instructed by the commander of the lines to the left; the lines to the right are instructed by the commander of the lines to the right. When all five men in a line have been successfully instructed, their squad leader is rewarded. Failing to successfully instruct all of them will result in being punished as though one had committed the crime of contravening instructions. If someone who has fallen ill, bring it to the attention of the squad himself and the squad members jointly report it, they will then be spared from punishment. 21.2 In general, when the squad of five assumes formation for battle, if one of the men does not advance to attack the enemy, his instructor will be punished as if he had committed the crime himself. The squad of ten protects and bonds the ten men within it. If they lose a man and the other nine men do not fight to the death in a desperate battle with the enemy, then their instructor will be punished as if he had committed the crime of himself. From the squad of ten up to the subordinate generals, if anyone does not follow the laws, their instructors will be punished as if they had committed the crime himself. In general, to make punishments and fines strict and incentives and rewards fair, they must be incorporated within the laws for instructing the soldiers. 21.3 Generals and army have different flags, companies have different emblems. The Left Army wears their emblems on the left shoulder; the Right Army wears their emblems on the right shoulder; the Central Army wears their emblems on the front of the chest. Record on their emblems which part of the army they are from.. From the front to the rear, for each platoon of five lines, the most honored emblems are placed on the head, the others accordingly place the emblem lower and lower. 21.4 The squad leader instructs the other four men using a board as a drum, a piece of tile as a gong, and a bamboo pole as a flag. When he strikes a drum, they should advance; when he lowers the flag, they should race forward; when he strikes a gong, they should withdraw. When he points left, they should go left; when he points right, they should go to the right. When the gongs and the drums are struck together, they should sit. When the squad leader has completed instructing the squad, they should be united with another squad under a leader for a squad of ten. When the squad leaders, has completed instructing them, they should be united under a platoon commander. When the platoon commander has completed instructing them, they should be united under a company commander. When the company commander has completed instructing them, they should be united under an army commandant. When the army commandant has completed instructing them, they should be united under a subordinate general. When the subordinate general has completed instructing them, they should be united under a commanding general. When the commanding general has completed instructing them, he has them deploy in formation in the countryside. He sets up three large posts, one every hundred pace and has the army into a formation before moving towards the first pole. They advance one hundred paces and practice engaging enemy. They quickstep for a hundred paces and then race for another hundred paces. They practice battle tactics according to such plan. Afterward, rewards and punishments should be implemented according to how much they achieved during training. 21.5 From the commandant down, every officer has a flag. When the battle has been won, in each case, look at the rank of the flags that have been captured and reward accordingly. Such action will show that the commanding general is determined to reward base on accomplishments. Victory in war lies in awesomeness. Establishing awesomeness lies in uniting strength, Uniting strength lies in correct implementation of punishments. To implement punishments correctly, rewards system must be clear. Today when the people turn their backs to the border gates, facing life and death in war, if they have been taught to die without hesitation, there is a reason and that is correct implementation of rewards and punishment. 21.6 Instructed defenders set up a solid defence; those engaged in battle to inevitably fight; perverse plans not to be put in action; perverse people not to speak; orders effected without differing from the original orders given; the army to advance without doubt; and the light units behave like a clap of thunder – to rush at the enemy like the stampede of horses. Raise those of merit, distinguish those with virtue, making their distinction as clear as black and white. Cause the people to follow the orders of their superiors just as the four limbs respond to the mind. 21.7 If the forward units break up the enemy’s ranks, penetrate enemy’s solid defence like water bursting through, there is a basis for it. This is the result of effective training. They provide the means to open sealed borders, preserve the altars of state, eliminate disaster and harm, and gain martial accomplishment. 22.1 I have heard that a ruler of men once knows the way to achieve victory he is then able to able to unite others and become expansive and great, to unify the ordinances and regulations and have his awesomeness prevail in the world. There are twelve essential matters to look at to achieve victory: The first is called ‘joint punishment’ and refers to the method of joint criminal responsibility for all members of the squad of five. The second is called ‘terrain restrictions’ which refers to prohibiting and stopping passage along the roads in order to ensnare spies from external. The third, ‘chariot as a unit’, refers to the chariot commanders and infantry leaders being mutually dependent, the three officers in the chariot and the squads of five being cohesive, all coming together to form a unit. The fourth, ‘defending strategic points’, refers to dividing the terrain with boundaries and having each man securely defending his position till death. The fifth, ‘demarking boundaries’, refers to the left and right restraining each other, front and rear awaiting each other and a wall of chariots creating a solid defense in order to oppose the enemy and stop them. The sixth, ‘commands are distinguished’, refers to the forward rows concentrating on advancing, thereby being distinguished from those in the rear who are not to compete to be the first to ascend nor overstep their positions. The seventh, ‘five emblems’, refers to distinguishing the rows, with emblems so that the troops will not be disordered. The eighth, ‘preserving the units’, refers to units breaking up and following each other, each having their appointed sections. The ninth, ‘gongs and drums’, refers to stimulating the troops to achievement and compelling them great heights. The tenth, ‘arraying the chariots’, refers to making the formation tight, with the spears deployed to the front and putting blinders on the horses’ eyes. The eleventh, ‘warriors of death’, refers to selecting the courageous and strong from among masses of the army to ride in war chariots. They race forward and back, across and about, using tactics to gain mastery over the enemy. The twelfth, ’strong troops’, refers to regulating the flags and preserving the units. Without the flags signaling an order, they do not move. When the instructions for these twelve have been successfully taught, anyone who contravenes an order should not be pardoned. A such a weak army will be able to strengthen. If a ruler does not have a reputation, they will be able to know him. If orders become enervated, they will be able to revitalize them. If the people become migrants, they will be able to attract them. If the people are numerous, they will be able to govern them. If the territory is vast, they will be able to defend it. Without going sending out the chariots or taking the armours our from the storage bags, your awesomeness will still spread throughout the land. 22.2 Soldiers have five commitments: For their general, they forget their families; when they cross the border, they forget their relatives; when they confront the enemy, they forget themselves; when they are committed to die, they will live; urgently seeking victory is the lowest. One hundred men willing to suffer the pain of a blade can penetrate a line and cause chaos in a formation. One thousand men willing to suffer the pain of a blade can seize the enemy and kill its general. Ten thousand men willing to suffer the pain of a blade can transverse anywhere at will. 22.3 King Wu asked Tai Gong Wang: “I want to know the essence of employing men.” Tai Gong Wangreplied: “Your rewards should be like mountains, your punishments like streams. When carrying out punishment and rewards, makes no errors, the next is to correct mistakes immediately, if any. As such there would not be disputes. Now anyone who, when about to be punished, requests that he not be punished should die. Anyone who, when about to be rewarded, requests that he not be rewarded should die. Attack a country when it has major changes. Observe their display of riches in order to observe their poverty. Observe their display of weaknesses in order to determine their ‘illnesses’. If the ruler is immoral and the people disaffected, in cases such as these, one has a basis for attack.” 22.4 In general, whenever about to mobilize the army, you must first investigate the strategic balance of power both within and outside the borders in order to decide whether to mount a campaign. You must know whether the army is well prepared or suffers from inadequacies, whether there is a surplus or shortage of food. You must determine the route for advancing and returning. Only thereafter can you mobilize the army to attack the chaotic and be certain of being able to enter his state. If the territory is vast but the cities small, you must first occupy their land. If the cities are large but the land narrow, you must first attack their cities. If the country is vast and populace few, then isolate their strategic points. If the land is confined but the people numerous, then construct high mounds in order to attack them. Do not destroy their material gains nor delay people’s scheduled agricultural activities. Be magnanimous towards his government officials, stabilize the people’s occupations, and provide relief for the impoverished for then your virtuous deeds will be sufficient to spread throughout the land. Today, warring states attack each other and mount large assaults on the virtuous. From the squads to the platoons, from the platoons to the army, none have unified orders. They cause the people to have unsettled minds; these rulers incline toward arrogance and extravagance. Officials are constantly involved in disputes, spending their time investigating matters. These are entanglements that caused all parties to be tired and dispirited thus bringing about defeat. After the sun has set the road remains long and when the soldiers return to camp, they are dispirited. The army is tired from the campaign, the general covetous. Thus they will plunder to seize material gains, he will be easily defeated. 22.5 When the general is arrogant and obnoxious, the fortifications are low, and the troop’s minds unstable, they can be attacked. If the general can be counted on, fortifications are high but the masses are afraid, they can be encircled. In general, whenever you encircle someone, you must provide them with a prospect for some escape, causing them to become weaker day by day. When times passed, even if the defenders reduce their rations, they will have nothing to eat. When their masses fight with each other at night, it is a sign that they are terrified. If the masses avoid following instructions, they have become disaffected. If they just wait for others to come and rescue them and when the time for battle arrives, they are tense, they have all lost their will and are dispirited. Dispirit-ness defeats an army; distorted plans defeat a state. 23.1 Weapons are implements for killing. War is contrary to virtue. Plundering, an underhand activity. Therefore when a true king attacks the brutal and chaotic, he takes benevolence and righteousness as the foundation for it. At the present time, the warring states to establish their awesomeness, resist their enemies and plot against each other. Thus they cannot abandon their armies. 23.2 War takes the military as its trunk and political gains as its seed. War can be seen as the exterior, and the politics as the interior. One who can investigate and fathom the two will know victory and defeat. Politics is the means to discern benefit and harm, to discriminate security and danger. The military is the means to contravene a strong enemy, to forcefully attack and defend. 23.3 One who is unified will be victorious; one who is beset by dissension will be defeated. When formations are tight, they are solid; when using weapons, it is better that the formations are loose. One whose troops fear their general far more than the enemy will be victorious. One whose troops fear the enemy far more than their general will be defeated. Thus to know who will be victorious, who defeated, measure your general with the enemy. If the general is settled and quiet, the troops are well-ordered; If the general is brutal and hasty, they are in chaos. 23.4 Sending troops forth and deploying the army have standard orders; the dispersal and density of the lines and squads have standard methods; and arraying the rows from the front to rear has its appropriateness and suitability. Standard orders are not employed when pursuing a fleeing enemy or suddenly striking a city. If the front and rear are disordered, then the army loses ability to achieve victory. If anyone causes confusion among the lines, behead him. 23.5 The standard deployment for formations is always facing toward the enemy. There are also internally oriented formations, externally oriented formations, standing formations, and sitting formations. Internally oriented formations provide the means to preserve the center; externally oriented formations provide the mean to defend against external threats. Standing formations are the means to move, sitting formations the means to stop or defend. Standing or sitting formations deployed in accord with the need to move or stop, with the general being in the middle, in command. The weapons of the seated soldiers are the sword and axes; the weapons of the standing soldiers are the spear tipped halberd and crossbow; the general also occupies the middle, in command. 23.6 Those who excel at repulsing the enemy, first join battle with regular troops, then use surprise strategies to control them. This is the technique for certain victory. Array axes of authority, make a display of the emblems and flags. Those who have merit must be rewarded; those who contravene orders must die. The preservation or destruction of the state and the life or death of the soldiers lies at the hands of the general. Even though there are those under heaven who excel at commanding armies, no one will be able to repulse an army whose general does the above. 23.7 Before arrows have been shot and cross in flight, before the long blades have clashed, if the enemy’s front lines are noisy, it means their army is weak. If the back lines are noisy, it means they are strong in numbers. If both the front and the back lines are not noisy, it means there is a plan. All three situations are typical war situations. 24.1 Units are dispatched from the main army to undertake advance preparations for defense. They should set up observation posts along the borders every three to five li. When they hear that the main army is making preparations to advance, mount a defense, and engage in battle, they should prohibit all movement in order to provide security to the state. 24.2 When troops from the interior are about to set out for border duty, have the commanding officer provide them with their flags, drums, halberds, and armor. On the day for issuing forth, anyone who leaves after the commanding officer has gone out beyond the district border shall be liable for the law for late arrival for border duty. The term of border duty for a soldier is one year. Anyone who leaves before being replaced shall be punished analogously to the law for deserting the army. If his parents, wife, or children know about it, they will share the crime with him. If they do not know about it, pardon them. 24.3 If a soldier arrives at the headquarters of the Grand General a day after his commanding officer, his parents, wife and children should all share the crime with him. If a soldier abandons his post to return home for a day and his parents, wife, or children do not arrest him, hold him or report it, they should also share the crime with him. 24.4 If they should abandon their commanding officer in battle, or if their commanding officer should abandon his troops and flee by himself, behead them all. 24.5 If a forward officer should abandon his troops and flee, any officer to the rear who is able to kill him and reassemble his troops should be rewarded. 24.6 Anyone among such troops who has not achieved merit within the army must serve three years at the border. 24.7 If the army engage in a major battle and the commanding general dies, all of the subordinate officers whose commanding units of more than five hundred men, who were not able to fight to the death with the enemy should be beheaded. All the troops near to the commanding general, on the left and right in protective formation, should be beheaded. As for the remaining officers and men in the army, those who have merit should be demoted by one grade. Those who do not have merit should be sent to three years’ border duty. 24.8 If the squad of five loses a man in battle, or if a squad member dies in battle but they do not retrieve his corpse, then take away all the merit of all his squad members. If they retrieve his corpse, then their crimes should all be pardoned. 24.9 The army’s advantage and disadvantage lie in the strength of the state. Today if a person’s name appears as holding a particular military office but in reality he is at home, then the office has not gained from his presence, and the household does not have the registration of his name. When troops are assembled to compose an army, it will have an empty name without substance. Outside the state, it will be inadequate to repel enemies, while within the borders, it will be inadequate to defend the state. This is the way in which the army becomes insufficient , in which the general has his awesomeness taken away. 24.10 In my opinion, when soldiers abandon their units and return home, the other members of their squad in the same barracks and their officers would be punished by taking their rations, to be put into the army’s provisions. Thus a person is nominally with the army, but in reality, double the ration is taxed from the household. The resources of the state are then expended and the harvest of the people are naturally exhausted. How can the disaster of defeat be avoided in such a case? 24.11 Today, if the rules are able to stop deserters from returning home, this prevents the loss of an army and is the first military victory. When the squads of five and ten are mutually bound to the point that in battle, the troops and officer will aid each other, this is the second military victory. If the general is able to establish his awesomeness and set great example, the soldiers to master and follow instructions, while the commands and orders are clear and trusted, and attacking and defending are both properly executed, this is the third military victory. 24.12 I have heard that in antiquity, those who excelled in employing the army could motivate half of their officers and soldiers to fight to death in war. The next could motivate a third of their officers and soldiers to fight to death in war. And the next could motivate a tenth of their officers and soldiers to fight to death in war. One who could motivate half his troops to fight till death have his awesomeness spread throughout the land. One who could motivate one third of his troops to fight till death is equivalent to the strength of the warlord. One who could motivate a tenth of his troops to fight till death can thoroughly execute orders given to him. Thus I say that a mass of a millions that does not follow orders is not as good as ten thousand men who fight. Ten thousand men who fight are not as good as one hundred men who are truly aroused. Thus rewards should be as clear as the sun and moon, credibility should be given accurately like the cycle of the four seasons, orders are should be like the axe of authority that commands with authority, and regulations are as sharp and clear as the famous sword Gan Chiang. Only when such conditions are met, officers and troops will follow orders.